7 Key Android Concepts
Macadamian Technologies | April 12, 2012 | 9 Min Read
Although the Android platform is open and customizable, Android users have become accustomed to constructs developed by Google for Android devices.
Although the Android platform is open and customizable, Android users have become accustomed to constructs developed by Google for Android devices. Moreover, the use of these Android concepts is vital in developing an application quickly – custom Android designs can take up to 10 times longer!
Android UI Controls
Android provides a number of standard UI controls that enable a rich user experience. Designers and developers should thoroughly understand all of these controls for the following reasons:
- They are faster to implement. It can take up to ten times longer to develop a custom control than to implement a user interface with standard Android controls.
- They ensure good performance. Custom controls rarely function as expected in their first implementation. By implementing standard controls, you can eliminate the need to test, revise and improve custom controls. Moreover, while designers will spend a great deal of time thinking about how a control should look, they may not always consider the many ways in which a custom control will behave in the user’s hands. Items on a mobile device often need to grow and shrink in size as they are pinched, or scroll if they are part of a list. As a result, creating a “clean” custom control from scratch can take a significant amount of design and development time. Google, however, has already thought about these interactions and developed standard controls to properly address them.
- Android users expect standard controls. Through their interactions with other Android apps, users become accustomed to Android’s standard controls. Deviating from the standard Android user experience can confuse and frustrate users, making them less likely to want to use your app and incorporate it into their daily activities.
With a solid awareness of Android’s standard controls, designers and developers can speed app development while offering users an intuitive experience that feels instantly familiar.
Android applications are composed of “activities” which are unique, focused actions a user can take. Because it can be difficult or time-consuming to scroll, zoom in, or click links on a small screen, it is recommended that an app display only one activity per screen. This practice presents the user with only the most relevant information and allows them to launch a new screen for additional information, or click the “back” button to view the previous activity. While a screen can expose multiple tasks, it should help the user complete just one activity at a time.
In Gmail for example, a user can only read the body of an e-mail (right) once he has clicked the relevant message (left). This layout reduces the amount of information displayed on each screen and allows the user to easily navigate between the Inbox and the message text.
When a user first downloads your application, he will make snap judgments on the usability and intuitiveness of the application within the first few minutes of use. It is, therefore, crucial to balance the creativity of your app with the standard user interactions Android users have come to expect. These include:
- Hard buttons: including Back, Menu, Home and Search buttons. Soft buttons that duplicate these features will only confuse or frustrate Android users. Moreover, back button behavior can be tricky and needs to be defined up-front for every screen, as it is not always as simple as returning to the previous activities. Most mobile phones, for example, offer both an “incoming call” activity and an “active call” activity. Once a user has answered and completed the call, the user would not expect to return to the “incoming call” activity upon pressing the “back” button, but rather to the activity that occurred before the incoming call. If the app offers only one activity, the back button should return the user to the device’s home page.
- Long press elements: Items of a list can be long pressed to open a context menu that provides secondary information. “ToDo” list apps, for example, often use a touch interaction to mark a task as completed and a long press interaction to display a menu with “edit” or “delete” functionality.
Android UI screens are frequently resized, both on the fly via pinch and zoom as well as at startup when Android adjusts the size of the UI to fit the screen size of the mobile device on which it’s running. In order to make the most of the screen size and handle this resizing gracefully, Android provides a number of screen layout options.
First, Android developers must specify whether each screen should follow a linear layout which manages controls in a horizontal or vertical fashion or a relative layout which manages controls in relation to one another. Linear layouts are the most common, as in the example below. At left, the controls only stretch to accommodate the text and are positioned in a horizontal line. In the middle image, the same rules apply but in a vertical layout. At right, the vertical layout is maintained but the middle button stretches to accommodate the screen rather than the text.
A relative layout defines the position of controls by their relationship to other components on the same screen. In the example below from the droidcake.com blog, the “OK” button was specified to be set below the radio button group. The “Cancel” button was specified to be set to the right of the OK button with its right edge extended to the edge of the screen. This relative layout positioning ensures the position of the buttons remains constant across a variety of screen sizes.
Android also offers specific layout properties to control the way in which screen elements are displayed across Android devices and during use:
- Weight: The weight property allows the developer to determine how free space is divided on the screen.
- Gravity: Gravity is the term used for control alignment (right, bottom, top, or left) on an Android device.
- Density independence: Your application achieves “density independence” when it preserves the physical size (from the user’s point of view) of user interface elements displayed on screens with different densities. Without density independence, a UI element (such as a button) will appear larger on a low-density screen and smaller on a high-density screen.
So who specifies all of these properties?
If an Android application is designed in a vacuum and then “thrown over the wall” to the development team, you must rely on the developers’ interpretation of the design which may vary significantly from the original intent. On the other hand, the development team shouldn’t be expecting the designer to specify the weight, gravity and other layout properties of each screen and control.
In our experience, the best practice is to have the designer document the layout and resize behavior of each screen to the development team via a series of wireframes, if not a full style guide. The designer should then stay in close communication with the development team as the developers work to determine the right combination of Android layout properties to realize the design.
A common misconception is that an Android app should be designed to support only a specific set of Android devices. Many teams assume their app will only look right on a screen of a particular screen size and limit their design to suit only a handful of devices supporting that size. In reality, Android offers you tools needed to develop a visually impressive interface that supports the full range of devices and screen sizes on the market.
To help you accommodate the range of Android screen sizes, Android recommends designing four versions of the application UI:
- A small version for screens under 3”.
- A normal version to accommodate 3” to 4.5” screens.
- A large version for viewing on 4.5” to 10” screens.
- An extra large version for devices with screens larger than 10” (tablet).
It is not strictly necessary to create a design for all four versions – in some cases; one “normal” and one “extra large” version may suffice. If, however, you need to display a large number of controls on your screen, or your organization wishes to ensure perfect consistency across screen sizes, you may decide to accommodate all four size categories listed above.
A smartphone should only display one activity per screen due to its small screen size. Tablet devices, however, offer additional screen real estate and are often used in a similar setting as a desktop or notebook, meaning the application could show more information at once on the screen. Using an Android construct called fragments, designers and developers can merge portions of the UI onto one large screen or split them into individual screens for use on small screens. This can help to reduce the number of interactions a user must perform on a device with a large screen and eliminate wasted space.
The example below shows a Gmail interface on a tablet display. This design uses fragments to display both the navigation list at left and the Inbox content at right. The design reduces the number of screens that must load before the user reaches the desired message.
If you anticipate your app will someday be used on a tablet device, we strongly recommend you incorporate fragments into your design. Designers need to be aware of the concept of fragments in order to design by fragment, and developers also need to be aware of this concept and its implementation details.
By designing custom, reusable fragments for each screen activity at the beginning of the project, you can eliminate the need to create an entirely new layout for a tablet device.
Android applications typically borrow from other applications already on the device. Using intents you can simplify both the programming requirements for your app and offer simpler, less cluttered screens.
If your app needs to perform a function beyond its core abilities such as opening a photo, looking up a contact, or playing a video, the team should investigate whether a tool that can perform that function already exists in the OS or in a popular third-party app. If so, you can leverage that functionality using intents.
For example, if your app accesses user contacts, you can use intent objects to launch the device’s existing Contacts application. This will eliminate programming duplication and speed up the user’s interaction with the device since the user will not need to re-learn how to add a contact to your particular app.
Android offers specific UI controls, activities, interactions, layout and resize options, as well as special constructs like fragments and intents. While on the surface these appear to be things that the design team needs to work with, we contend that the entire team must be immersed in Android to coordinate design, workflow, and execution into a single, intuitive application — one that grabs users’ attention and draws them into the real value of your product.
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